References

Järbrink K, Ni G, Sönnergren H The humanistic and economic burden of chronic wounds: a protocol for a systematic review. Syst Rev. 2017; 6:(1) https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-016-0400-8

Chronic wounds: the hidden health crisis hitting 2m Britons. 2019. https://tinyurl.com/yy2xtjfn (accessed 21 May 2021)

Guest JF, Ayoub N, McIlwraith T Health economic burden that wounds impose on the National Health Service in the UK. BMJ Open. 2015; 5:(12) https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009283

Sen CK, Gordillo GM, Roy S Human skin wounds: a major and snowballing threat to public health and the economy. Wound Repair Regen. 2009; 17:(6)763-71 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-475X.2009.00543.x

Nussbaum SR, Carter MJ, Fife CE An economic evaluation of the impact, cost, and medicare policy implications of chronic nonhealing wounds. Value Health. 2018; 21:(1)27-32 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2017.07.007

Purwins S, Herberger K, Debus ES Cost-of-illness of chronic leg ulcers in Germany. Int Wound J. 2010; 7:97-102 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-481X.2010.00660.x

Hjort A, Gottrup F. Cost of wound treatment to increase significantly in Denmark over the next decade. J Wound Care. 2010; 19:173-84 https://doi.org/10.12968/jowc.2010.19.5.48046

Posnett J, Gottrup F, Lundgren H The resource impact of wounds on health-care providers in Europe. J Wound Care. 2009; 18:(4)154-61 https://doi.org/10.12968/jowc.2009.18.4.41607

Dolk FCK, Pouwels KB, Smith DRM Antibiotics in primary care in England: which antibiotics are prescribed and for which conditions?. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2018; 73:ii2-10 https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkx504

Clarke-Moloney M, Keane N, Kavanagh E. An exploration of current leg ulcer management practices in an Irish community setting. J Wound Care. 2006; 15:(9)407-10 https://doi.org/10.12968/jowc.2006.15.9.26963

Clarke-Moloney M, Keane N, Kavanagh E. Changes in leg ulcer management practice following training in an Irish community setting. J Wound Care. 2008; 17:(3)116-21 https://doi.org/10.12968/jowc.2008.17.3.28669

Lindholm C, Bergsten A, Berglund E. Chronic wounds and nursing care. J Wound Care. 1999; 8:(1)5-10 https://doi.org/10.12968/jowc.1999.8.1.25828

Olsson M, Järbrink K, Divakar U The humanistic and economic burden of chronic wounds: a systematic review. Wound Repair Regen. 2019; 27:(1)114-25 https://doi.org/10.1111/wrr.12683

Management of biofilm. 2017. https://tinyurl.com/4rpbvcb6 (accessed 21 May 2021)

Murphy C, Atkin L, Swanson T Defying hard-to-heal wounds with an early antibiofilm intervention strategy: wound hygiene. J Wound Care. 2020; 29:S1-26 https://doi.org/10.12968/jowc.2020.29.Sup3b.S1

Percival SL, Mayer D, Kirsner RS Surfactants: Role in biofilm management and cellular behaviour. Int Wound J. 2019; 16:(3)753-60 https://doi.org/10.1111/iwj.13093

Atkin L, Bućko Z, Montero EC Implementing TIMERS: the race against hard-to-heal wounds. J Wound Care. 2019; 28:S1-50 https://doi.org/10.12968/jowc.2019.28.Sup3a.S1

de Moura MRL, Soares SR, de Azevedo DS Protocolo de tratamiento de heridas con apósito de hidrofibra reforzada, con plata iónica al 1,2%, potenciado con EDTA y cloruro de bencetonio para evitar la recurrencia de biopelícula. J Wound Care. 2020; 29:18-26 https://doi.org/10.12968/jowc.2020.29.LatAm_sup_2.18

Tinelli G, Sica S, Guarnera G Wound care during COVID-19 pandemic. Ann Vasc Surg. 2020; 68:93-4 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2020.06.044

Schlager JG, Kendziora B, Patzak L Impact of COVID-19 on wound care in Germany. Int Wound J. 2021; https://doi.org/10.1111/iwj.13553

The impact of COVID-19 on wound care provision in South Africa: a personal account. 2021. https://tinyurl.com/w6jbur3m (accessed 21 May 2021)

A look at the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on wound care practices a year later. 2021. https://tinyurl.com/eyj54tbd (accessed 21 May 2021)

Wound hygiene survey: awareness, implementation, barriers and outcomes

02 July 2021
18 min read
Volume 5 · Issue 3

Abstract

Objective:

In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has resulted in changes to caseload management, access to training and education, and other additional pressures, a survey was developed to understand current awareness and implementation of the wound hygiene concept into practice one year on from its dissemination. Barriers to implementation and outcomes were also surveyed.

Method:

The 26-question survey, a mixture of multiple choice and free-text, was developed by the Journal of Wound Care projects team, in consultation with ConvaTec, and distributed globally via email and online; the survey was open for just over 12 weeks. Due to the exploratory nature of the research, non-probability sampling was used. The authors reviewed the outputs of the survey to draw conclusions from the data, with the support of a medical writer.

Results:

There were 1478 respondents who agreed to the use of their anonymised aggregated data. Nearly 90% were from the US or UK, and the majority worked in wound care specialist roles, equally distributed between community and acute care settings; 66.6% had been in wound care for more than 8 years. The respondents work across the spectrum of wound types. More than half (57.4%) had heard of the concept of wound hygiene, of whom 75.3% have implemented it; 78.7% answered that they ‘always’ apply wound hygiene and 20.8% ‘sometimes’ do so. The top three barriers to adoption were confidence (39.0%), the desire for more research (25.7%) and competence (24.8%). Overall, following implementation of wound hygiene, 80.3% reported that their patients' healing rates had improved.

Conclusion:

Respondents strongly agreed that implementing wound hygiene is a successful approach for biofilm management and a critical component for improving wound healing rates in hard-to-heal wounds. However, the barriers to its uptake and implementation demonstrate that comprehensive education and training, institutional support for policy and protocol changes, and more clinical research are needed to support wound hygiene.

Ongoing research in wound care management has brought many advances in dressing technology and best practice. At the same time, there is a growing, ageing global population with wounds who increasingly present with comorbid health conditions, thereby posing challenges to individuals and healthcare. These challenges include escalating costs to healthcare systems, disproportionate devotion of resources to wound care, increasing antibiotic usage during a time of global concern and, most importantly, decreased patient quality of life.1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13 Effective strategies to expedite healing may benefit all stakeholders. Evidence is mounting that improving the management of hard-to-heal wounds necessarily involves improving the wound microclimate, which includes addressing the tenacious biofilm that is present in most wounds.14

Register now to continue reading

Thank you for visiting Wound Central and reading some of our peer-reviewed resources for wound care professionals. To read more, please register today. You’ll enjoy the following great benefits:

What's included

  • Access to clinical or professional articles

  • New content and clinical updates each month